Wednesday, March 18, 2020
About the Speaker of the House of Representatives The position of Speaker of the House of Representatives is created in Article I, Section 2, Clause 5 of the U.S. Constitution. It states the House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers... Key Takeaways: Speaker of the House The Speaker of the House is designated by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution as the highest-ranking member of the House of Representatives.The Speaker of the House is second in the line of presidential succession, after the Vice President.The election for Speaker of the House takes place at the beginning of each new congressional session.While the Speaker is designated as the presiding officer of the House, this day-to-day duty is usually assigned to another representative.The 2019 annual salary of the Speaker of the House is $223,500, compared to $174,000 for rank-and-file Representatives. How the Speaker Is Chosen As the highest-ranking member of the House, the Speaker is elected by a vote of the members of the House. While it is not required, the Speaker usually belongs to the majority political party. The Constitution does not require that the Speaker be an elected member of Congress. However, no non-member has ever been elected Speaker. As required by the Constitution, the Speaker is elected by a roll call vote held on the first day of every new session of Congress, which begins in January following the November midterm election thats held every two years. The Speaker is elected to a two-year term.Ã Typically, both the Democrats and the Republicans nominate their own candidates for Speaker. Roll call votes to select the Speaker are held repeatedly until one candidate receives a majority of all votes cast. Along with the title and duties, the Speaker of the House continues to serve as the elected representative from his or her congressional district.Ã Speaker of the House, the Role, Duties, and Powers Typically the head of the majority party in the House, the Speaker outranks the Majority Leader. The salary of the Speaker is also higher than that of the Majority and Minority Leaders in both the House and Senate. The Speaker rarely presides over regular meetings of the full House. Instead, they delegate the role to another representative. The Speaker does, however, typically preside over special joint sessions of Congress in which the House hosts the Senate. The Speaker of the House serves as the presiding officer of the House. In this capacity, the Speaker: Calls meetings of the House to orderAdministers the oath of office to new membersEnsures that order and decorum are maintained on the floor of the House and in the visitor galleriesMakes rulings on disputed House procedures and parliamentary issues As any other Representative, the Speaker may take part in debates and vote on legislation, but traditionally does so only in exceptional circumstances - such as when his or her vote could decide very important issues (like resolutions declaring war or amending the Constitution). The Speaker of the House also: Appoints the chairpersons and members of standing House committees and select and special committeesAppoints a majority of members to the important House Rules CommitteeExerts power over the legislative process by setting the House legislative calendar determining when bills will be debated and voted onOften utilizes this power to help fulfill his or her responsibility of making sure bills supported by the majority party are passed by the HouseServes as chair of the majority partys House steering committee Perhaps most clearly indicating the importance of the position, the Speaker of the House stands second only to the Vice President of the United States in the line of presidential succession. The first Speaker of the House was Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, elected during the first session of Congress in 1789.Ã The longest-serving and perhaps most influential Speaker in history was Texas Democrat Sam Rayburn, who served as Speaker from 1940 to 1947, 1949 to 1953, and 1955 to 1961. Working closely with House committees and members from both parties, Speaker Rayburn ensured the passage of several controversial domestic policies and foreign aid bills backed by Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman. The 2019 annual salary of the Speaker of the House is $223,500, compared to $174,000 for rank-and-file Representatives. Source The Constitution of the United States of America. Constitution Center.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Busiest Subway and Metro Systems in the World Subways, also known as metros or the Underground, are an easy and economical form of rapid transit in approximately 160 world cities. After paying their fares and consulting their subway maps, residents and visitors to the city can quickly travel to their home, hotel, work, or school. Travelers can get to government administration buildings, businesses, financial institutions, medical facilities, or religious worship centers. People can also travel to the airport, restaurants, sporting events, shopping venues, museums, and parks. Local governments closely monitor the subway systems to ensure their safety, security, and cleanliness. Some subways are extremely busy and crowded, especially during commuting hours. Here is a list of the fifteen busiest subway systems in the world and some of the destinations that the passengers might be traveling to. It is ranked in order of total annual passenger rides. The Worlds Busiest Subway Systems 1. Tokyo, Japan Metro Ã¢â¬â 3.16 billion annual passenger rides Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populated metropolitan area and home to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s busiest metro system, with approximately 8.7 million daily riders. This metro opened in 1927. Passengers may travel to the many financial institutions or Shinto temples of Tokyo. 2.Moscow, Russia Metro Ã¢â¬â 2.4 billion annual passenger rides Moscow is the capital of Russia, and about 6.6 million people daily ride beneath Moscow. Passengers may be trying to reach Red Square, the Kremlin, St. BasilÃ¢â¬â¢s Cathedral, or the Bolshoi Ballet. Moscow metro stations are very beautifully decorated, representing Russian architecture and art. 3. Seoul, South Korea Metro Ã¢â¬â 2.04 billion annual passenger rides The metro system in Seoul, the capital of South Korea, opened in 1974, and 5.6 million daily riders can visit financial institutions and the many palaces of Seoul. 4. Shanghai, China Metro Ã¢â¬â 2 billion annual passenger rides Shanghai, the largest city in China, has a subway system with 7 million daily riders. The metro in this port city opened in 1995. 5. Beijing, China Metro Ã¢â¬â 1.84 billion annual passenger rides Beijing, the capital of China, opened its subway system in 1971. About 6.4 million people daily ride this metro system, which was expanded for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Residents and visitors can travel to the Beijing Zoo, Tiananmen Square, or the Forbidden City. 6. New York City Subway, USA Ã¢â¬â 1.6 billion annual passenger rides The subway system in New York City is the busiest in the Americas. Opened in 1904, there are now 468 stations, the most of any system in the world. About five million people daily travel to Wall Street, the United Nations headquarters, Times Square, Central Park, the Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty, or theater shows on Broadway. The MTA New York City Subway map is incredibly detailed and complex. 7. Paris, France Metro Ã¢â¬â 1.5 billion annual passenger rides The word Ã¢â¬Å"metroÃ¢â¬ comes from the French word Ã¢â¬Å"metropolitan.Ã¢â¬ Opened in 1900, about 4.5 million people daily travel beneath Paris to reach the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre, Notre Dame Cathedral, or the Arc de Triomphe. 8. Mexico City, Mexico Metro Ã¢â¬â 1.4 billion annual passenger rides About five million people daily ride the Mexico City metro, which opened in 1969 and displays Mayan, Aztec, and Olmec archaeological artifacts in some of its stations. 9. Hong Kong, China Metro Ã¢â¬â 1.32 billion annual passenger rides Hong Kong, an important global financial center, opened a subway system in 1979. About 3.7 million people ride daily. 10. Guangzhou, China Metro Ã¢â¬â 1.18 billion Guangzhou is the third largest city in China and has a metro system which opened in 1997. This important trade and commercial center is an important port in Southern China. 11. London, England Underground Ã¢â¬â 1.065 billion annual passenger rides London, United Kingdom opened the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first metro system in 1863. Known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Underground,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"The Tube,Ã¢â¬ about three million people daily are told to Ã¢â¬Å"mind the gap.Ã¢â¬ Some stations were used as shelters during the air raids of World War II. Popular sights in London along the Underground include the British Museum, Buckingham Palace, the Tower of London, the Globe Theater, Big Ben, and Trafalgar Square. Other Busy Subway Systems The metro in Delhi, India is the busiest metro in India. The busiest metro in Canada is in Toronto. The second busiest metro in the United States is in Washington, DC, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. Subways: Convenient, Efficient, Beneficial A busy subway system is very beneficial to the residents and visitors in many world cities. They can quickly and easily navigate their city for business, pleasure, or practical reasons. The government uses the revenues raised by fares to further improve the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure, safety, and administration. Additional cities around the world are constructing subway systems, and the ranking of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s busiest subways will likely change over time.
Friday, February 14, 2020
WSJ.com only - Essay Example Most companies intended to increase their capital expenditures in order to enhance their efficiency and to improve logistic needs, which are very essential to the growth of any company. Recession is one of the most challenging concepts in finance and economics. Scott presents a succinct explanation on how recession impacted US companies and the entire US economy. Reading and analysing financial articles especially with regards to figures are quite challenging. One thing I find difficult and challenging in this article is the use of figures and graphs. Most of the graphs and figures on the performance of the companies and the entire economy is complex. Scott also says that most US companies survived recession, created jobs and contributed to the economic growth but at the same time stating that US jobs reduced and levels of unemployment went high. The analysis is also not clear given that most companies, which collapsed were not included in the
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Use of Intelligence in World War II - Essay Example The Second World War was the most extensive war that history documents spanning six years (Inaba, 2008). The war started in 1939 and ended in 1945 involving vast global nations that later formed Allies and Axis, two antagonizing military alliances (Caruana & Rockoff, 2007). Intelligence played a significant role towards the success of the attacks that the antagonizing alliances launched against each other. Intelligence implies the gathering, analysis and application of knowledge to offer guidance and direction to a military alliance. The research herein presents the use and significance of intelligence during the Second World War. Similar to the Allies, the GermansÃ¢â¬â¢ success attributes to their communications intelligence (Guglielmo, 2008). The nation established listening posts in Spain and traded cipher information with Italy, Japan, Hungary, and Finland. Germany broke ciphers of all the nations with an exception to the Soviet Union. The American military attachÃ © in Cairo was their lieutenant general Erwin RommelÃ¢â¬â¢s reliable source of information in North Africa. The reports and code-breaking intelligence helped the German navy to know the exact locations of British ships prior to their 1940 Norway invasion (Blewett, 2000). Besides, Germans had the knowledge of intercepting sensitive communications. he nationÃ¢â¬â¢s radio intelligence post in the Netherlands monitored and timely descrambled the radiotelephone conversation between Franklin Roosevelt, American President, and Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister.
Friday, January 24, 2020
Character Page Ralph Ralph is a fair boy of about twelve. He is the first character introduced in the story and is a dominant leader throughout most of the book. He finds the conch, a symbol of order and authority. He blows the conch and holds an assembly in which he is voted chief. Ralph stays focused on getting rescued and building shelters while most of the others play and hunt. By the end all the boys have either turned against him or died. Piggy Piggy is a large, timid boy, with asthma and specs (eye glasses). He is Ralph's loyal sidekick from the start. His brilliant mind and logical thinking are trapped inside his unattractive body. He is disrespected and rejected because of his looks, and used for his glasses, which are the only means of starting the fire. Piggy struggles to stay strong and clear through the madness and chaos. Jack Jack is the leader of the choir boys who become the first band of hunters. He is intent on becoming savage and killing pigs for meat. He neglects the fire, their only hope for rescue, and goes hunting instead. Jack rebels against Ralph and forms his own tribe at the other end of the Island. His tribe hunts all day and holds feasts and dances every night. His violent instincts show up in murder and destruction as civilization runs out of him. Simon Simon is mysterious and spiritual. He is a small boy with incredible, silent, courage and strength. He starts out a part of Jack's choir, then becomes loyal to Ralph when he is elected chief. Simon helps Ralph with the shelters and is admired by the littluns. He has a spiritual encounter with the Lord of the Flies, which is a pig's head on a stick. This encounter is one of the most symbolic incidences in the book. The head is the beast that all the littluns fear and represents the inner instincts and evils in man. Samneric In the beginning Sam and Eric are recognized as two separate people, two twin brothers. By the end they are referred to as Samneric, a single being. They were loyal to Ralph in the beginning and throughout most of the book. Towards the end they are captured by Jack's tribe and join in on a hunt for Ralph. They are weak and easily swayed by forceful power. Plot The book opens with the description of a beautiful island with pink rocks, warm pools, and a long, palm lined, beach protected by a coral reef.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Western philosophy has its roots in Athens, Rome and JudeoÃ Christianity while Eastern philosophy is derived from Confucianism, Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism. As Greek and Latin are to Western civilisation, so classical Chinese is to East Asian civilisation. I will focus on four major differences between Eastern and Western philosophies. 1. Western Individualism and Eastern Collectivism In the GrecoÃ¢â¬âRoman tradition, the image of Prometheus powerfully illustrates the struggle for individual freedom. Prometheus had gone against Zeus, the all powerful god who ruled the sky from Mt. Olympus. Prometheus annoyed Zeus by creating human beings. To protect the human beings from Zeus, he stole fire from Hephaestos, the blackmith god and gave it to the human beings. This angered Zeus to the extent that Prometheus was chained to a rock and an eagle tore out his liver. In European consciousness, Prometheus had become the hero who: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦defied the patriarchy in the name of individual freedom, who brought light into our darkness. He was the saviour who sacrificed himself for the sake of mankind, the benefactor who brought the gift of technology down from heaven, the teacher who taught us that we are not at the whims of the gods any more, who showed us how to use our intelligence to take control of the worldÃ¢â¬ . The Christian tradition has also reinforced the notion of individual rights. The Bible speaks of God creating Man in His own image and letting him Ã¢â¬Å"have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle and over all the earth, and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earthÃ¢â¬ (Genesis 1:26). By comparison, the Chinese live in a world of obligations: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦obligations to serve the ruler, obligations to work for the family, obligations to obey elders, obligations to help relatives, obligations to do well to glorify the name of ancestors, obligations to defend the country in times of trouble, and obligations to oneself to cultivate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own virtue. It would also seem that rights only belong to one individual Ã¢â¬â the Son of Heaven. Confucianism promotes conservatism and this stifles creativity and robs the people of selfÃ¢â¬âintrospection. 2. Fragmentary and Holistic According to Fritjof Capra, the emphasis of rational thought is epitomised in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ celebrated statement,Ã¢â¬â¢Cognito, ergo sumÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËI think, therefore, I exist.Ã¢â¬â¢ This has forcefully encouraged Westerners to equate their identity with their rational mind rather than with the whole organism. This division between the mind and the body has led to a view of the universe as a mechanical system consisting of separate objects, which in turn were reduced to fundamental building blocks whose properties and interactions were thought to completely determine all natural phenomena. This mechanistic conception of the whole world is still the basis of most of our sciences and continues to have a tremendous influence on our lives. Academic disciplines become fragmented and this has served as a rationale for treating the universe as if it consisted of separate parts to be exploited by different groups. The essence of the Eastern world view is the awareness of the unity and the mutual interÃ¢â¬ârelation of all things and events, the experience of all phenomena in the world as manifestation of a basic oneness. All things are seen as independent and inseparable parts of a cosmic whole, as different manifestations of the same ultimate reality. The Eastern traditions refer to this ultimate, indivisible reality as Brahman in Hinduism, Dharmakaya in Buddhism and Tao in Taoism. 3. Conflict and Harmony The Marxist view of history saw change as arising from a Ã¢â¬Ëdialectic Ã¢â¬Ëinterplay of opposites Ã¢â¬âhence class struggle and conflict. Western civilisation based itself on the struggle between the Good and Evil, God and Satan or Psyche and Cupid. Eastern philosophical thought is based on this notion of the Yin and the Yang. Frithjof Capra describes the Yang as the strong,male creative power associated with Heaven while yin is the dark,receptive, female and maternal element. The dark yin and the bright yang are arranged in a symmetrical manner. They are dynamic Ã¢â¬â a rotating symmetry suggesting very forcefully a continuous cyclic movement.The two dots in the diagram symbolise the idea that each one of the forces reaches its extreme, it contains in itself the seed of the opposite.Ã¢â¬â¢LifeÃ¢â¬â¢ says Chuang TzuÃ¢â¬â¢is the blended harmony of the yin and the yang.Ã¢â¬â¢ Taoism permeates the economic and social lives of the Chinese through geomancy, qigong, Chinese medicine and idol worship. As Chan observes:Ã¢â¬ Almost every hotel, office and commercial building that has gone up within the last decade adheres to certain principles of geomancy or Ã¢â¬Å"FengshuiÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the art and science of harmonising man and nature. 4. Idealism and Pragmatism. The Western idea of democracy does not fit into the Eastern scheme of things easily. In an interview by the Daily Telegraph on 16 October 1989 the former Prime Minister remarked that: I think in a mainly Chinese electorate, the idea of a loyal opposition and an alternative government does not come easily. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re either for or against the government. The Confucianistic idea of social hierarchy where a personÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is relational, extending from his family, society and country. The pragmatism of the East is exemplied in the way Confucianism has been used to emphasize order through social hierarchy and the rules and conventions. Taoism provided the meaning of life and thus compliment Confucianism. Confucius preached the doctrine of the here and now. The emphasis is one of Ã¢â¬Å"life and lifeÃ¢â¬ and not Ã¢â¬Å"life and death.Ã¢â¬ The sage hoped to Ã¢â¬Å"hear the right way in the morning, and die in the evening without regret. Ã¢â¬Å"What lays the foundation of life for the Chinese is the family and the continuation of the family also means the passing on of experience, culture and thought. The Taoists has an equal view of life and death seeing life and death as the coming out and going back of a human form of existence. Chuang Tsu talks of Ã¢â¬Å"coming and going Ã¢â¬Å". Lao Tzu said,Ã¢â¬ out to life, in to death.Ã¢â¬ The crux of the matter is to make the best of the present.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Thomas Jefferson, a Democrat-Republican, won the presidency from John Adams in the election of 1800. Highs and lows marked his foreign policy initiatives, which included the spectacularly successful Louisiana Purchase, and the horrid Embargo Act. Years in Office: first term, 1801-1805; second term, 1805-1809. Foreign Policy Ranking: first term, good; second term, disastrous Barbary War Jefferson was the first president to commit US forces to a foreign war. Barbary pirates, sailing from Tripoli (now the capital of Libya) and other places in North Africa, had long demanded tribute payments from American merchant ships plying the Mediterranean Sea. In 1801, however, they raised their demands, and Jefferson demanded an end to the practice of bribe payments. Jefferson sent US Navy ships and a contingent of Marines to Tripoli, where a brief engagement with pirates marked the United States first successful overseas venture. The conflict also helped convince Jefferson, never a supporter of large standing armies, that the United States needed a professionally trained military officer cadre. As such, he signed legislation to create the United States Military Academy at West Point. Louisiana Purchase In 1763, France lost the French and Indian War to Great Britain. Before the Treaty of Paris of 1763 stripped it permanently of all territory in North America, France ceded Louisiana (a roughly defined territory west of the Mississippi River and south of the 49th Parallel) to Spain for diplomatic safe-keeping. France planned to retrieve it from Spain in the future. The deal made Spain nervous as it feared to lose the territory, first to Great Britain, then to the United States after 1783. To prevent incursions, Spain periodically shut down the Mississippi to Anglo-American trade. President Washington, through Pinckneys Treaty in 1796, negotiated an end to Spanish interference on the river. In 1802, Napoleon, now emperor of France, made plans to reclaim Louisiana from Spain. Jefferson recognized that French reacquisition of Louisiana would negate Pinckneys Treaty, and he sent a diplomatic delegation to Paris to renegotiate it. In the meantime, a military corps that Napoleon had sent to reoccupy New Orleans had run afoul of disease and revolution in Haiti. It subsequently abandoned its mission, causing Napoleon to consider Louisiana too costly and cumbersome to maintain. Upon meeting the US delegation, Napoleons ministers offered to sell the United States all of Louisiana for $15 million. The diplomats did not have the authority to make the purchase, so they wrote to Jefferson and waited weeks for a response. Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution; that is, he did not favor wide latitude in interpreting the document. He abruptly switched to a loose constitutional interpretation of executive authority and okayed the purchase. In doing so, he doubled the size of the United States cheaply and without warfare. The Louisiana Purchase was Jeffersons greatest diplomatic and foreign policy achievement. Embargo Act When fighting between France and England intensified, Jefferson tried to craft a foreign policy that allowed the United States to trade with both belligerents without taking sides in their war. That was impossible, given that both sides considered trade with the other a de facto act of war. While both countries violated American neutral trade rights with a series of trade restrictions, the United States considered Great Britain to be the biggest violator because of its practice of impressmentÃ¢â¬âkidnapping US sailors from American ships to serve in the British navy. In 1806, CongressÃ¢â¬ânow controlled by Democrat-RepublicansÃ¢â¬âpassed the Non-Importation Act, which prohibited the import of certain goods from the British Empire. The act did no good, and both Great Britain and France continued to deny American neutral rights. Congress and Jefferson ultimately responded with the Embargo Act in 1807. The act, believe it or not, prohibited American trade with all nationsÃ¢â¬âperiod. Certainly, the act contained loopholes, and some foreign goods came in while smugglers got some American goods out. But the act stopped the bulk of American trade, hurting the nations economy. In fact, it wrecked the economy of New England, which relied almost exclusively on trade to support its economy. The act rested, in part, on Jeffersons inability to craft a creative foreign policy for the situation. It also pointed out American arrogance which believed the major European nations would cave in without American goods. The Embargo Act failed, and Jefferson ended it just days before he left office in March 1809. It marked the lowest point of his foreign policy attempts.